Tall Tower Measurements Tall tower measurements broaden our knowledge on regional atmospheric background concentrations by measuring above the surface layer. Vertical profiles of trace gases and isotopic fractionation can also help understand the exchange of trace gases between the biosphere and the atmosphere. Using an Acoem manifold that staggers the measurements, differences in gas concentrations can be obtained between air parcels at different heights. Amazon Rainforest While being used as part of a two-year research study on methane and other gases in the Amazon region — measuring both concentration and flux of multiple pollutants — Spectronus detected extraordinary and unparalleled levels of CO coinciding with the period of highly intense forest fires in Brazil. Most of the focus for greenhouse gas studies in the Amazon has always been on CO 2 , with a gap in knowledge regarding Methane. Using Spectronus TM we were in a position to stop that gap and the fact that we could measure both concentration and flux of multiple pollutants, made the data we received from Spectronus TM even more valuable. Dr Hella van Asperen, Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen (Germany) South East Australia Seven-point vertical profiles of each species from 2-70m were measured every 30 min, colours represent measurements at heights above the surface shown in the legend. The top of the forest canopy is approx. 40m above the surface. CH 4 / ppb CO 2 / ppm Figure 6. Time series of (a) CO 2 and δδ δ13 C in CO 2 and (b) CH 4 and N 2 O during a 3-week campaign at the O z Flux tower site near Tumbarumba, SE Australia, November 2006. 3 10 | acoem.com
Soil Flux Chamber Measurements While it is important to measure land surface emissions, they are inhomogeneous and multiple measurements need to be performed to reach statistical confidence. The fully automated and remotely accessible Spectronus combined with a chamber system optimises the number of samples collected. It also ensures a repeatable sampling protocol, which is crucial in these measurements. • Integrate Spectronus seamlessly with soil chambers for precise and reliable flux measurements. • Control valve manifolds and chambers remotely with Spectronus to setup sequences as well as regulate the opening and closing of the lids. Figure 7. Chamber measurements of soil carbon & isotope fluxes, Wombat State Forest, Australia 4 (Courtesy of Professor Stefan Arndt & Stephen Livesley, University of Melbourne). 3 Griffith, D. W. T., Deutscher, N. M., Caldow, C. G. R., Kettlewell, G., Riggenbach, M., and Hammer, S.: A Fourier transform infrared trace gas analyser for atmospheric applications, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 2481-2498, 10.5194/amtd-5-3717-2012, 2012. 4 Phillips, R., et al.: Tracking short-term effects of 15N addition on N 2 O fluxes using FTIR spectroscopy, J. Environ. Qual., 42, 1327-1340, 2013. 4 Fest, B. J., et al.: Soil methane oxidation in both dry and wet temperate eucalypt forests shows a near-identical relationship with soil air-filled porosity, Biogeosciences, 14, 467-479, 10.5194/bg-14-467- 2017, 2017. acoem.com | 1
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